Format for notes on the examination of metal objects 8. If one were to ask the question as to which is the cause. The best light sources are those in which the light intensity is controlled by a voltage adjustment. A more detailed list of etchants used for various metalsalloys can be found at the end. Annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering of steel. This is about to examine the microstructure of steel and observe the constituents and structure of it. Examination of the microstructure of a material provides information used to determine if the structural parameters are within certain specifications. View lab report material lab report from computer s 123 at sri lanka institute of information technology. Transmission electron microscopy does not reveal a change in the microstructure produced by different thermal treatments, yet it does permit visualization of the complex material microstructure, consisting of a martensitic matrix with embedded carbides. The steel is hypereurectoid and cast, and was made in a crucible process. Normalizing involves heating steel, and then keeping it at that temperature for a period of time, and then cooling it in air.
Abstract proper preparation of metallographic specimens to determine microstructure and content requires that a. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical. Viewing microstructures of materials using the optical microscope. It then undergoes normalized process which is cooled in still air.
A skilled technician is able to identify alloys and predict material properties, as well as processing conditions by. This article gives an overview of metallography and metallic alloy characterization. Material lab report title microstructure examination of. Microscopic examination microstructure analysis to evaluate materials. Metrology lab experiment microstructure analysis of ferrous. To report microstructures of plain carbon steel, tool steel, gray c.
Different microscopy techniques are used to study the alloy microstructure, i. To examine and analyze the microstructures of metals and metallic alloys. The edge properties of a blade are affected by the microstructure of the steel. Annealed microstructure of type o6 graphitic tool steel prepared top with the threestep method using the ultrapol silk cloth for step 2. Above experiment observed the microstructure of the steel. In the lab or in the classroom, demonstrate use of a microscope to observe materials samples. Introduction microscopic examination with digital imaging microstructure analysis is conducted by microscopic examination, a process that studies the structure of materials under magnification. Viewing microstructures of materials using the optical.
Typical microstructure of sheet base metal is composed of ferrite and small regions of pearlite. Theoretically, steels are the alloys of iron and carbon in which the. To observe the constituents and structure of metals and their alloys by means of an optical microscope introduction microscopic examination with digital imaging microstructure analysis is conducted by microscopic examination, a process that studies the structure of materials under magnification. Identify the phase or phases present and the grain size of the material from your metallographic examination. The steel jacket used to protect the ti piece during heating and retain heat during rolling. In the first part of this paper, the microstructure of base metal of industrial low carbon steel 0. Experiment 6 heat treatment of steel eutectoid hypoeutectoid. Performing microstructural examination on prepared test. Within this context, the present work focuses on examining the mechanical properties and microstructure of two hotwork tool steels, of which one is a representative steel grade steel a and the second a higheralloyed variant steel b, at different tempering conditions. Normalizing is as term of returning the structure back to normal. Objectuve to observe the constituents and structure of metals and their alloy by means of an optical microscope. Microstructure examination of steel heat treating steel.
Microstructure can be observed using a range of microscopy techniques. During microstructure analysis of metals and alloys, a microscopic examination is conducted to study the microstructural features of the material under magnification. Material lab report title microstructure examination of steel. Interpretation of the microstructure of steels harry bhadeshia. The analysis results are used as a criterion for acceptance or rejection. The properties of a material determine how well it will perform under a given application, and these properties are dependent on the structure of the material. Spheroidize annealed w1 waterhardened carbon tool steel etched with top 4% picral to reveal the general.
Using mild steel as an example, the melt is now cast in the continuous caster. Conclusion metallography is one of the most important part of physical metallurgy that enables us to guess the type of the material and its physical properties from the microstructure by using an optical or electron microscopy. Use demonstration samples to show typical microstructure of. Metallographic specimens of heat treated components to be supplied and. Microstructure and mechanical properties of mild steel. Metrology lab experiment microstructure analysis of ferrous and non ferrous metals. Then alcohol is sprayed over the surface and the mount is finally dried in a stream of hot air. Of equal importance is the fact that, within limits, the microstructure can provide an accurate picture of the mechanical and thermal. In this experiment we saw how the microstructure is effected with some physical property changes like carbon content and the addition of alloying elements or some.
Technician a person having little or no formal training but who, through aptitude and experience, is capable of performing acceptable specimen preparation and other. Bakelite and diallyl phthalate fall into the first category while transoptic material into the. Optical micrograph of a mixed microstructure of bainite and martensite in a medium carbon steel. The grinding surface of the samples were polished using al203 carried on a micro clothe. Effect of welding on microstructure and mechanical properties. The pearlite appears in a variety of colors due to differences in spacing. The preparation of metallic or other materials for microscopic examination and micro structural characterization is in principal very simple.
To observe the constituents and structure of metals and their alloys by means of an optical microscope. When describing the structure of the material we have to consider about two. I n hardness test three different specimens of high speed steel, mild steel and aluminum was examined for. Title microstructure examination of steel objective. Physical metallurgy lab indian institute of technology. Preparation of specimen for metallographic examination of different engineering materials. Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties.
It differs according to the elements that make up the alloy and especially the heat treatment the blade has received. The knowledge obtained is exploited for the design. Flat enough to permit examination by optical microscope or sem. Preparing tool steels for microstructural examination. Microscopic examination of metals laboratory testing inc. In the absence of a supervising metallurgist, the metallographer may be required to interpret microstructure, perform tests, and report the results in clear technical prose. Microstructure and mechanical properties degradation of crmo.
Our metallurgical lab also has four fullyequipped metallographs with full image analysis capabilities utilized for microstructure examination. Microstructure of tested steel after 102000 h service, magnification 400 x microhardness in the pearlite grains was. Microstructure and mechanical properties degradation of crmo creep resistant steel operating under creep conditions materials engineering materialove inzinierstvo 18 2011 5762 59 fig. Procedure for this lab six samples of each of the three carbon steel compositions1018. Lab exam lab viva lab quiz will be either after both sets of experiments or after each set of experiment. Radzikowska, the foundry research institute, krako. The residual phase is untempered martensite which etches lighter because of the absence. The stir zone of the steel joints may not penetrate into the lower steel sheet and the joining of the two steel plates is generally achieved by diffusion bonding at high temperature. The preparation of metallic or other materials for microscopic examination and micro.
Wagoner, distinguished professor of engineering 2001 lecture notes, taken from the internet site. Metallography developed from the need to understand the influence of alloy microstructure on macroscopic properties. Conclusion metallography is one of the most important part. The resulting microstructure is a mixture of ferrite and cementite which has a higher strength and hardness, but lower ductility. The bainite etched dark because it is a mixture of ferrite and cementite, and the. Annealing, normalizing and agehardening heattreatments at 850oc were used for the experimental work. Conclusion metallography is one of the most important part of. Effect of welding on microstructure and mechanical.
Material engineering, me 254 lab manual prepared by. Microstructure examination of steel heat treating steel free 30. Microstructure and mechanical properties of mild steel joints. Recording the results of metallographic examination 9. In that test the best edge retention was found in japanese chisels that had grain sizes of 8 to 10 with a hardness of rc. Title microstructure examination of steel objective to observe the constituents and structure of metals and their alloys by means of an optical microscope. Metallography specimen preparation and examination objectives 1. Polished samples of each type will be provided by the tas. Each sample was carefully grounded progressively on emery paper in decreasing coarseness. Compression molding materials are 1 thermosetting or 2 thermoplastic polymers.
Also during this lab the effects of additional tempering after quenching on the steels microstructure and hardness were observed. Common etchants for copper, copper alloys, iron, steel, and silver 6. The effect of heat treatment at 850ocon the microstructure and mechanical properties of sae 1025 carbon steel has been studied. The microstructural features of a given material may vary greatly when observed at different length scales. Microstructure analysis microstructure testing, evaluation. Hardness tests, tensile tests and metallography were carried out on the heattreated and control samples. Metallography and microstructures of cast iron janina m. The term microstructure is used to describe the appearance of the material on the nmcm length scale.
On solidification, as the strand emerges from the caster, it is cut into standard lengths. Pdf microstructure examination and hardness test researchgate. Metrology lab experiment microstructure analysis of. Download as docx, pdf, txt or read online from scribd. Identify the phase or phases present and the grain size of. For steel mills, fabricators, machine shops, and other highvolume clients, our automatic stage microscopy and image analysis enable us to accurately analyze up to eight specimens simultaneously. Typically, the slabs are about 10 meteres long, about 1400mm wide and about 250mm thick. The microstructure is the geometric arrangement of grains and the different phase present in a material. View each of the samples, comment on the microstructures in your lab report and make sketches of the microstructures and include them in your. Sep 02, 2016 metrology lab experiment microstructure analysis of ferrous and non ferrous metals. Metallography is the study of the microstructure of metals and alloys by means of. Introduction matallography is the study of metals by optical and electron microscopes.
After etching, the mount is throughly rinsed in running water. Bilgehan ogel, mete 206, experiment iii, microstructure of materials, laboratory notes 2005compiled by glyn meyrick, professor emeritus, revised by robert h. To learn and to gain experience in the preparation of metallographic specimens. Lab examlab vivalab quiz will be either after both sets of experiments or after each set of experiment. Examine microstructures of steel in relation to hardness background to understand heat treatment of steels requires an ability to understand the fec phase diagram shown in figure 61.
Effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties and. After preparation, the sample can easily be analyzed using optical or electron microscopy. However, a typical format for a lab report is included in this observation. Three sides of the bag were spot welded and the fourth side. Feb 03, 2014 also during this lab the effects of additional tempering after quenching on the steels microstructure and hardness were observed. Microstructure examination of steel free download as word doc. In this case, the peak temperature during the welding process seems much important and will dominate the microstructure formed at the welding interface 14. Focuses on the art and science of preparing, interpreting, and analyzing microstructures to understand material behavior and performance. The students shall get clarity about microstructures of carbon steels, cast irons and nonferrous alloys.
Microstructure refers to the size and pattern of microscopic variations in the composition and structure of the steel. In the second part, the effect of welding on the microstructure evolution is illustrated. These samples were polished to a 1 micron finish and then chemically etched to reveal the grain boundaries. Metallographic specimen preparation, microscopic examination. The branch of materials science dealing with microscopic examination of metals is called metallography. Although this chart stops at grain size 8, finer grain sizes are sometimes found in woodworking tools. In hardness test three different specimens of high speed steel, mild steel and aluminum was examined for.176 377 1119 841 355 1193 99 449 610 700 726 1496 1032 467 175 1198 1564 420 1401 935 573 1505 1415 1219 1543 133 192 1552 613 442 836 1195 296 687 344 980 918 461 1345 76 764 921 68 1113 1496 408